Electron Ki Khoj Kisne Ki – A Brief History of Discovery
What is an Electron?
An electron is a subatomic particle that carries a negative electric charge and is one of the basic building blocks of matter. It is one of the three fundamental particles that make up atoms, along with the protons and neutrons. Electrons are found in the outermost shell of an atom, the “valence shell,” and are responsible for the chemical properties of an element.
Who Discovered the Electron?
The electron was first postulated in 1897 by J. J. Thomson, an English physicist and Nobel laureate, who theorized that a particle of negative electricity existed within the atom. He then conducted experiments to investigate the properties of this particle, which he called the ‘electron.’ Through his experiments, he was able to measure the mass and charge of the electrons, and he was able to prove that electrons were a part of all atoms.
The Discovery of Electron’s Mass
In 1911, Ernest Rutherford, a British physicist and Nobel laureate, conducted experiments to measure the mass of the electron. He used alpha particles, which are positively charged particles, and bombarded a thin gold foil. He discovered that the alpha particles were deflected by an invisible force, which he concluded was caused by the electrons in the gold atoms. By measuring the deflection of the alpha particles, he was able to calculate the mass of the electrons.
The Discovery of Electron’s Charge
In 1909, Robert Millikan, an American physicist and Nobel laureate, conducted experiments to measure the charge of the electron. He used an oil-drop experiment, which involved suspending tiny oil drops in a vacuum and measuring their electric charge. By measuring the charge of the droplets, he was able to determine the charge of the electron.
The electron was first postulated by J. J. Thomson in 1897 and was later discovered by Ernest Rutherford and Robert Millikan in the early 1900s. Thomson was able to measure the mass and charge of the electron, Rutherford was able to measure the mass, and Millikan was able to measure the charge. Since then, the electron has revolutionized our understanding of the atom and has become an integral part of modern physics.