What Is Permanent Hardness Of Water?

What Is Permanent Hardness Of Water?
PPT HARD WATER AND SOFT WATER PowerPoint Presentation, free download from www.slideserve.com

What is Permanent Hardness of Water?

Water hardness is a measure of the amount of minerals, primarily magnesium and calcium, dissolved in water. If a water sample has high levels of magnesium and calcium, it is considered hard. Hardness can also be caused by iron and certain other metals. The hardness of water can vary drastically depending on its source, but most water sources fall somewhere between 0-200 parts per million (ppm).

What Causes Permanent Hardness of Water?

Permanent hardness of water is caused primarily by the presence of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. These compounds are naturally occurring in many water sources and can become dissolved in the water. The hardness of the water is determined by the amount of calcium and magnesium present and can range from very soft to very hard.

What are the effects of Permanent Hardness of Water?

The presence of high levels of permanent hardness in water can have a number of negative effects. The hardness can cause issues with plumbing and other water-using appliances, as it can clog pipes and decrease the efficiency of boilers and other components. In addition, the hardness can make it difficult to use certain soaps and detergents, as they may not dissolve properly in hard water.

How Can Permanent Hardness of Water be Reduced?

There are a number of ways to reduce the hardness of water. Boiling the water can help remove the carbonates, as well as the other minerals that cause hardness. Additionally, a water softener can be used to remove the calcium and magnesium from the water. This process involves passing the water through a resin bed, which removes the hardness-causing minerals as the water passes through.


Permanent hardness of water is caused by the presence of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate in the water. It can cause a number of negative effects, including clogged pipes and decreased efficiency of water-using appliances. Boiling and using a water softener are two methods that can reduce the hardness of water.

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