Reproduction In Lower And Higher Plants

Reproduction In Lower And Higher Plants
Std 12th Sci, Biology , Chapter 1st Reproduction in lower and from

Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants

What is Reproduction?

Reproduction is the process of creating new organisms from existing ones. It allows organisms to pass on their genes to their offspring, thus ensuring the continuance of their species. Reproduction occurs in both lower and higher plants.

Reproduction in Lower Plants

Lower plants, or non-vascular plants, such as mosses, ferns, and liverworts, reproduce asexually. In other words, they do not require a partner for reproduction; instead, they create offspring through their own genetic material, usually by creating spores.

Lower plants typically reproduce via the process of sporogenesis. This process produces haploid spores that are released into the environment. These spores can then develop into a new organism, although not every spore will successfully grow into a new plant.

Reproduction in Higher Plants

Higher plants, or vascular plants, such as trees, grasses, and flowers, reproduce both sexually and asexually. Through sexual reproduction, a higher plant produces seeds that contain both the male and female gametes. These seeds can then be planted and will eventually produce a new plant.

Higher plants can also reproduce asexually through a process known as vegetative propagation. This process involves the cloning of a plant, allowing it to produce new shoots or root systems that will eventually become new plants.


Reproduction is an essential process for all living organisms, allowing them to pass on their genes and continue their species. In plants, this occurs through both asexual and sexual reproduction. Lower plants reproduce asexually, while higher plants are able to reproduce both sexually and asexually.

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